Even though the United States withdrew itself from the landmark Paris Agreement, countries around the world are still committed to cut their carbon emissions in accordance with their respective INDCs (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions) in the UNFCCC framework. Nonetheless, experts say there exists a ‘gap’ between the collective outcome of these efforts and what is required to achieve the so-called 2-degree goal. How do they figure out the existence and the width of such a gap? There is a special tool to quantify and simulate the effects of various policies on the emissions.
Many speculate what would happen to the U. S.’s pledges to curb greenhouse gas emissions after Donald J. Trump takes control of the White House. The U. S. promised not only to cut its own emissions through its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) but to help poor countries under the Paris Agreement. Unfortunately, the President-elect has openly vowed to leave this landmark deal, which intends to limit the global temerature increase to 2 degrees Celsius. So, what if the U. S. cannot meet, or even abandon, the INDC? Alternatively, if it somehow manages to deliver its promise, does it mean the worst-case climate scenario averted?
Ever since global leaders came to an agreement in Copenhagen that “an increase in global temperature should be below 2 degrees Celsius ” in 2009, there have been heated discussions over whether the so-called 2-degree goal is appropriate, realistic or sufficient as a means of avoiding the worst climate scenario. CNN even set up a “2-degrees series” on its opinion section to thread the goal through energy and climate issues .
This article was translated into Korean by Hoon Yun, under the permission of original author David Roberts (firstname.lastname@example.org). Original article available at http://www.vox.com/2015/12/15/10172238/paris-climate-treaty-conceptual-breakthrough.
파리 기후협정으로 말할 것 같으면 미 부통령 조셉 바이든이 빈정거린 것처럼 ‘퍽이나 호들갑 떨 일’이다. 기후변화는 이제 시작일 뿐인데, 이를 해결했다기보다는 국가들의 접근법을 수정하게 만든 일종의 ‘개념상의 돌파구(conceptual breakthrough)’라고 보아야 할 것이다. 협정을 세세하게 들여다 보면 그나마도 돌파구인지 헷갈릴 정도다. 여기서는 한 발짝 물러서서, 큰 그림을 보며 파리협정과 기후변화에 대해 고찰해 보도록 하자.
- Title: 10 practical steps to create an Emissions Trading System
- Date: 3/10/2016
- Author: Pierre Guigon (World Bank)
- Published: UNFCCC Newsroom (https://blogs.worldbank.org/climatechange/10-practical-steps-create-emissions-trading-system)
“Currently, ETSs are operating across four continents in 35 countries, 13 states or provinces, and seven cities, covering 40 percent of global GDP with additional systems under development.”
“This week, the WB launched “Emissions Trading in Practice: Handbook on Design and Implementation”, a new guide for policymakers that distills best practices and key lessons from more than a decade of practical experience with emissions trading worldwide.”
- Set the scope: i.e. geographic area, sectors, emissions sources, and GHGs to be regulated
- Set the cap: collect robust emissions data, and determine the level of the cap and its long-term trajectory
- Distribute the emissions allowances to regulated entities: potential leakage issues should be addressed)
- Consider allowing the use of offset credits: generated from uncovered sources and sectors in the ETS
- Set timeframes for the reporting and compliance period: consider flexibility from banking/borrowing
- Consider market stability design features: such as a price floor, ceiling, or allowances reserves
- Define enforcement of participants’ obligations and
- government oversight: monitoring, reporting, and independent verification of emissions, penalties for noncompliance, and oversight of the market to address risks of fraud and manipulation.
- Assure continuous engagement with stakeholders
- Allow regular reviews of ETS performance